Educated at Moscow State University, Psychology Department (1967-1975). Obtained a PhD at Moscow State University in 1975. Taught Psychology in Russia (1972-1989) and Great Britain (1991-2013). Conducted research in Russia, Germany, Great Britain, USA and Mexico. A fellow of Alexander von Humboldt foundation. Most works are on moral development, development of personality, cognitive development, the development of metaphysical thinking and magical thinking. Authored 15 books and over 120 research papers. An associate fellow of the British Psychological Society, a BPS Charted Psychologist, full member of the BPS Division for Academics, Researchers and Teachers. At the moment is a reader (emeritus) at Psychology Department, Lancaster University, UK. Lives in London and in Moscow.